Believe it or not, that tiny mark above is supposed to represent the entirety of World War Two. Sixty million dead, billions of lives altered forever, entire continents ravaged, all encapsulated in one minute opaque circle, like this one. Timelines are often shown as a series of such dots, and between any two, an infinity of detail.
Maybe timelines are more of an amazement for me personally since I spent over a decade as a history teacher and have yet to comprehend how a puny piece of punctuation can convey immense passages of human history.
2015 = .
One hundred years from now, in reflection it may not even merit that much ink, but for those of us who lived through the past twelve months in Arizona’s cannabis community and legalization movement, 2015 was a whirlwind of events and personalities, conflicting interests and recurring themes. We may never make sense of everything that happened or how one event connects to another, but here are dozens of events from the past dozen months, in semi-chronological order, somewhat sorted out for you, in case you too would like to attempt to try.
[In an only half-joking way, due to the extensive number of references to their articles to create this timeline, I would like to start the process by officially thanking my “unofficial co-authors,” Ray Stern of Phoenix New Times and Maria Ines Taracena from the Tucson Weekly for, in many cases, being the only Arizona authors consistently writing about Arizona’s cannabis news—thx Ray & Maria!]
January: January 11 Safer Arizona Rally at the Capitol—Opening day at the state legislature, led by Safer Arizona, the state’s cannabis community arrives en masse to create a crazy carnival of activists, onlookers and cops being chased around by a particularly erudite dancer wearing little more than pasties and body paint.
Also—Despite starting the calendar with a funeral for popular cannabis activist, Al Corbett, the year seemed off to a bright start. Starting Jan. 1, following a hard-fought effort led by the Arizona Cannabis Nurses Association, PTSD becomes a recognized qualifiying condition for a state medical marijuana card. A recent poll declares support for full legalization was over 50% and Arizona is widely regarded as a state expected to be part of the 2016 legalization parade. Consequently, AZ’s leading prohibitionist, Yavapai County Prosecuting Attorney, Sheila Polk, and anti-cannabis propaganda machine, MATFORCE, kick off their 2015 anti-legalization campaign by presenting to hundreds of Mohave County law enforcement officers and posting the first of many widely debunked opinion pieces for the Arizona Republic. National cannabis policy giant, the Marijuana Policy Project (MPP), having filed a campaign committee the previous fall, officially begins the drafting process on 2016 initiative. A first draft is released at the end of the month, essentially the standard MPP “T&R format” (tax and regulatory structure) based on the recently filed Nevada initiative authored by Minnesota lawyer Heather Azzi and includes personal cultivation rights, but receives mixed support.
Rebounding from their failed 2014 legalization campaign, Safer Arizona officially becomes a Political Action Committee (PAC) with original founder, Dave Wisniewski as chairman and political director, Mikel Weisser, as treasurer. Citing health reasons, previous Safer AZ chair, Tucson’s Robert Clark, stepped aside and serves as unofficial co-chair, but, like Weisser, relocates to PHX to work full-time on the their legalization project. Arizona State Representative Mark Cardenas (Dem-LD19) files both a full-scale T&R legalization measure (HB206) and a decriminalization measure (HB207) at the state house, but both fail to get assigned to committee. It is Cardenas’ 2nd attempt with the decrim bill originally drafted in 2010 by the fourth of Safer Arizona’s four founders, Dennis Bohlke.
Doubling down on their “reefer madness,” the Arizona GOP resoundingly rejected a resolution calling for considering legalizing hemp. Tucson Weekly publishes a cover story on a 4th Avenue phenomena: a social club for AMMA qualified mmj cardholding patients has overcome multiple challenges to offer the Tucson cannabis community a safe-haven for communal consumption. Dubbed the 420 Social Club, the vapor lounge soon becomes a magnet for cannabis activists and controversy.
Meanwhile in the PHX-metro area the vapor lounge movement expands even further. Purple Haze House (Tempe) & 710 Social Club (Glendale) host large cannabis events as the patient-to-patient community develops. A Scottsdale VFW and vapor lounges Lax Lounge (PHX) and 710 Social Club all challenge federal and state laws by openly hosting cannabis farmers’ markets attended by hundreds from around the state. News of the community spreads nationwide and Sere Frank of Idaho-based Moms for Marijuana briefly begins a program to help mmj patient parents targeted by DCS. Community hero, Chris Martin (founder of Billy Zonka edibles), while awaiting trial from a 2012 arrest, opens a hemp-themed restaurant and gift shop named Hempful Farms. Safer AZ holds its first newly expanded organizational meetings at Hempful Farms and loses founding member Dennis Bohlke over the newly proposed funding model. Lastly, just prior to hosting a Superbowl party featuring state representative Andrew Sherwood (Dem-LD26), the City of Tempe permanently closes Purple Haze House citing zoning violations.
February: MPP Takes an About-Face– After floating a 2nd draft with further expanded consumer protections, MPP looks to the activist community to join in investing in the campaign funding and receives no support. Instead the PHX-driven activist community ignores the dramatic proposed restructuring of the cannabis industry. The new structure would allow an unlimited number of new smaller businesses to acquire licenses in five specific areas of the industry and nearly double the number of retail outlets in the state. The industry threatens to withdraw funding. In response, at the end of the month, MPP’s 3rd draft, retrenches and cuts home-grow rights among other things in an effort to placate the mmj industry supporters who are the main donors to their campaign. Both the activists and the industry reject the measure and vow revenge.
Also—Gilbert-based Hemp Our World becomes the first cannabis-related ballot measure campaign to file with the Secretary of State’s office to attempt to collect the 150,000 petition signatures required to qualify for the 2016 ballot. (Actually Tempe-based activist, “Mickey Jones,” would file two, largely philosophical, initiatives first; defiantly named “Re-Legalize Marjiuana” & “Relegalize All Drugs (RAD),” respectively, entirely decriminalizing both cannabis and “all drugs,” but would not go on to organize to collect signatures, & so was not worth a full 50-word parenthetical element.)
Cousins Christian and Joseph Carrasco’s Hemp Our World initiative would incorporate the latest hemp farming GPS technology into their language and briefly brought in a Colorado cannabis campaigner to run their effort, but short on funds and continuingly hampered by the spotlight focused on the high-profile battles between other competing initiatives, HOW, would eventually have to refile their initiative after months of campaigning and lose momentum.
Due to conflicts with the Masons next door and recurring inquiries by police, the Scottsdale VFW suspends its farmers market. Also on the first day of the month, tens of thousands swarm around cannabis demonstrators outside the Superbowl in Glendale and it’s an SRO crowd on hand for the opening kick-off at Glendale’s 710 Club. And on the last day of the month, Safer Arizona moves into their short-lived offices in Mesa.
March: Montgomery Swallows Foot Up to Patella–During the Q&A following his debate with noted libertarian lawyer Mark Victor, Maricopa County Prosecuting Attorney Bill Montgomery loses his cool when celebrated cannabis activist/medical card holder and Vietnam vet, Don Ream, notes that in addition to getting medical relief from his cannabis, he also sometimes enjoys it just to enjoy it. “Then you, sir, are an enemy of the state!” Montgomery fired off and started a blowup that would reach national attention as cannabis and veteran supporters from around the country rallied to Ream’s defense. In the end Montgomery’s eventual inevitable weak-hearted apology to Ream fooled no one and Ream was thrust into the state cannabis reform spotlight. (In December Ream would become the deputy director of Arizona NORML.)
Also— All-out uglieness breaks out in the 3-way battle between MPP, the AZ MMJ Industry & Arizona activists, as the industry withdraws from the initiative negotiation process to form their own campaign, ARL, Arizonans for Responsible Legalization. Feuding between ARL and MPP makes national news. Along with their other “behind-the-scenes” activities, Safer Arizona leads a boycott of dispensaries supporting the no-home-grow position of the industry group and forms a drafting committee with Tom Dean that writes an activist-version of a proposed compromise initiative. That document would go on to become the basis much of new material in AZFMR’s eventual initiative.
While Christ Martin still awaits trial he learns a Gilbert dispensary is selling products using his Zonka logo, he’ll eventually get them to cease and desist. MPP’s in-state campaign director Carlos Alfaro takes office and begins attempting to reach-out to the PHX cannabis activist community at the monthly PHX Cannabis Coalition meeting; it doesn’t go that well. PHX Suns honor Afghanistan veteran/Safer Arizona founder Dave Wisniewski at halftime midcourt, downtown PHX St Patrick’s Day protests capture Fox 10 News attention, another PHX famer’s market gets raided as Lax Lounge vapor lounge closes.
April: April 17 Initial Initiative Filed—MPP’s in-state organization, now known as CRMLA (the Campaign to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol) files its ballot measure amid a flurry of press at the state capitol. The following night after CRMLA’s initiative release party, a second founder of Safer Arizona, Robert Clark resigns, rejecting the initiative.
Also—Within a week of the filing, MATFORCE launches a billboard campaign that includes distortions, deceptions and typos and fires up the activist community. The Arizona Supreme Court ruled that cardholding cannabis patients cannot be denied access to cannabis as part of the terms of their probation. Chis Martin’s Hempful Farms holds their official ribbon cutting ceremony the same month he has to take a plea in his case. And mmj veterans and other concerned cannabis users testify at the ASU Board of Regents hearings to call for improved cannabis research to no avail. Maricopa County DFA and Pinal County NAACP both host cannabis information meetings and call for the end of prohibition. PHX cannabis activists host a particularly popular booth at the annual PHX Pride Festival, but attendance for the annual 4/20 rally is sparse, though noted PHX-based filmmaker Dennis Gilman crafts a decent short out of the event.
May: Appellate Court Rejects Patient-to-Patient Sales Interpretation—Concluding a long complicated legal battle over a missing comma in a single sentence in the original AMMA, the state appellate court once and for all rejected the cannabis community’s assertion that Prop 203 allowed for unregulated sales between qualified medical card holders, in an industry otherwise as regulated as nuclear power. Less than a week earlier the 710 Club, PHX’s final vapor lounge/farmers’ market was raided out of existence for good.
Also—After a series of edits, CRMLA files their final version of AZ-Prop 108 their ballot measure to tax and regulate cannabis. It will still be another month until the campaign begins to distribute petitions. With the campaign’s focus on traditional political consultants and paid petition gatherers, the community loses momentum. PHX enjoys a strong turnout for the annual Global Marijuana March (May 2). MATFORCE gets caught trying to appropriate state RICO funds to fuel their anti-legalization campaign and state AG Mark Brnovich calls for MATFORCE leader, Sheila Polk to refrain from attempting to use her office and state funds for her personal political agenda. Laughter ensues. Citizens fought back against MATFORCE billboards. Mesa hosts a well-attended “Science of Cannabis Summit.” The Veterans group, Wings for Warriors features cannabis researcher Sue Sisely and calls for VA approval of cannabis in the treatment of PTSD. MATFORCE paid propagandist Seth Leibsohn takes a turn attempting to debate Mark Victor when Bill Montgomery balks at the possibility of embarrassing himself once more so soon after his previous debate misstep.
June: AZFMR Emerges to Challenge CRMLA—After months of internal struggles and much dispute over the final provisions of CRMLA, the activist community, led by Jason Hein and Jason Medar, files their own ballot measure and names themselves, the Arizonans for Mindful Regulation (AZFMR). Using several passages originally designed for and rejected by the MPP drafting committee by nationally renown cannabis lawyer Tom Dean, and admittedly edited into a copy-paste of the text of CRMLA, the activists’ initiative runs nearly double the length of the original and includes rewrites of state criminal codes ARS13-3401 & ARS13-3405, as well as a post-conviction relief strategy. The activist community further comes undone when the final two partners in Safer AZ split over pressures to abandon the past year of their work and reject CRMLA’s initiative. Executive director/treasurer Mikel Weisser leaves the organization, dissolves the PAC and vows to continue supporting CRMLA. Meanwhile Safer AZ’s original founder, Dave Wisniewski, goes on to continue the organization as an online-based activist group in service to the AZFMR. Ultimately 6 different initiatives regarding cannabis would be filed with the state elections department but only CRMLA, AZFMR & HOW—see above, Feb.–would mount a serious effort to collect the 150,000 signatures required to qualify for the ballot.
Also—Just prior to the split going public and the rise of AZFMR, a state poll shows AZ has strongest cannabis support ever, with 53% of Arizonans clamoring for legalization. Within two weeks MATFORCE leader, Sheila Polk publishes a controversial opinion piece in the Arizona Republic claiming marijuana killed 62 Arizona children. Quickly picked apart, the article draws mounds of criticism and is roundly debunked. The backlash again nets national attention. Arizona GOP leader, Robert Graham further drives the cannabis-flavored wedge between political parties by issuing a fatwa, excuse me, I meant resolution, officially condemning cannabis, the state’s legalization movement and hundreds of thousands of cannabis consuming Republicans across the state. Meanwhile over 1000 cannabis devotees from as far away as Flagstaff flock to Encanto Green Cross’ Cannabis Wellness Festival to see cannabis legend, Tommy Chong. (Cheech would later host a “Feliz Navi-Nugz” promotion for EGC’s Xmas promotions.)
July: The Scent of Cannabis No Longer Probable Cause—In a milestone development, honoring the rights of medical card holders across the state, the AZ Court of Appeals rules the scent of cannabis can no longer be used as “probably cause” of illegal marijuana use. With nearly one hundred thousand Arizonans legally allowed to consume and possess cannabis in the state for medical purposes, the smell of cannabis is no longer deigned a clear sign of illegal activity.
Also—PHX-based 420-themed party rapper, “Hotrock Supajoint,” earns the community some indy cred when New Times graces its cover w Supajoint in full faux-regala to open the month. Upstart start-up Southwest Events Group completes months of back room negotiations and announces that they will host Arizona’s first full-scale cannabis business conference planned for October. Less than a month after leaving Safer AZ, Mikel Weisser is asked to become interim deputy director of the state chapter of NORML and prepare the organization to become a key player in the ongoing legalization battle. In response, the Southwest Events Group offers Weisser office space for NORML in exchange for Weisser becoming a lead organizer for their upcoming expo. The Democratic Party Progressive Caucus approved a resolution calling for an end of prohibition, setting stage for a party-wide resolution scheduled for the January 2016 meeting. (The party previously passed a similar resolution supporting Safer AZ’s 2014 legalization campaign).
Tensions erupt between AZFMR activists and CRMLA supporters when AZFMR take over a CRMLA event at a Tempe Cheba Hut, co-sponsored by ASU’s chapter of Students for Sensible Drug Policy (SSDP). While no violence was reported, online stories of the hostile confrontation and alleged physical intimidation of an ASU co-ed by AZFMR members will eventually provoke Phoenix New Times’ author, Ray Stern, to write the first comprehensive analysis of the civil war in AZ’s cannabis community. Later when the 2015 Netroots convention is held at the PHX Convention Center, both campaigns attract attention, manage to avoid conflict and collect thousands of signatures at the Bernie Sanders rally that culminates the convention.
August: AZ Cardholders Top 80,000 Mark—AZ DHS announces that there are now more than 80,000 people participating in the AMMA program. (2014 AZ mmj industry revenues are reported to top $140 million).
Also—In light of the dramatic increase in patient count, the mmj patient community hosts a medical industry conference at the prestigious Pointe Hilton Resort. The event, expected to draw 300, hosts over 600 attendees. After witnessing an alcohol-poisoning on the 4th Avenue sidewalk, Tucson’s 420 Social Club and cannabis community host a “Welcome Back Weekend” Alcohol Awareness event attended by hundreds, but in the aftermath the event leads the City of Tucson to enact restrictions on the signage the vapor lounge can use.
Cannabis community darling, Chris Martin, acquitted of all marijuana charges still gets sentenced to two years on related gun charges though the trial could have netted him over 100yrs. Controversial Glendale vapor lounge/farmers’ market operator, Greg Levondoski’s Apache County cannabis collective is raided, further antagonizing the patient community. Arizona Cannabis Nurses Association petitions DHS to add 8 new qualifying conditions: Arthritis, Autism, Diabetes, Huntington’s disease, Neuropathic pain, Parkinson’s disease, Tourette’s syndrome, and Traumatic brain injury. Nationally renown nurse activist Heather Manus and her partner, attorney Ken Sobel attempt to kick-off a fundraising drive for their effort, but their campaign fails to generate support as the AZ cannabis community donors stay laser-focused on the legalization efforts. Ultimately Manus lands a nationally syndicated radio show in the fallout.
CRMLA campaign holds press conference at State Capitol announcing over 60,000 signatures collected and projections of $40 million dollars in potential tax revenue for education if cannabis is legalized. When prohibitionists claim the estimate is “a lie,” the center-right Grand Canyon Institute runs the numbers and confirms the $40 million estimate was in error: the actual figure is expected to be closer to $60 million in tax revenue based on nearly half a billion in yearly sales.
September: New Times’ “Stoner Wars” Article Uncovers AZFMR Over-the-Top Tactics—Longtime cannabis activists are outraged as reports of in-fighting, online harrassement and public intimidation from the AZFMR crowd are revealed in a cover story by PHX New Times. In addition to the fateful July 22nd Cheba Hut clash mentioned above, Ray Stern’s expose goes on to document the trolling, character-assassinations and physical intimidations used by AZFMR supporters to drive CRMLA supporters from AZ cannabis community. A key revelation is that the leadership of the AZFMR campaign are more committed to derailing CRMLA’s initiative than creating a successful campaign of their own. AZFMR vow to block legalization if CRMLA succeeds and theirs fails. Following numerous complaints of deceptions, AZFMR pulls their initial comparison chart which falsely claims CRMLA contains language defining individual seeds as cannabis plants, among other inventive mischaracterizations. Their replacement chart continues to be plagued by accustions of other distortions and deceptions.
Also–At Tempe Town Lake’s “Summer Ends” music festival, in front of tens of thousands of concert goers, the two groups would clash repeatedly, each accusing the other of dirty tricks. ASU’s SSDP leader Andre Maestas is convicted on charges of possession of cannabis on campus despite having a valid AZ mmj card at the time. Cannabis activists across the state launch protests and calls for reform though only 3 people attend court support for the verdict. The April 2014 case takes 17 months to prosecute, Maetas is convicted of “obstructing” an otherwise empty street in addition to misdemeanor possession charges. He appeals.
Tucson Weekly’s cannabis reporter Maria Inez Taracena again scores big with her cover story, “In Defense of Marijuana,” about longtime Tucson cannabis community leader, Iraq War vet and celebrity P to P defendant, Kyle Caitlin, who was facing multiple counts of marijuana production and trafficking for operating a cannabis collective in 2012 when arrested in two separate cases in rapid succession. Caitlin, who had been a tireless activist for the 2010 Prop 203 medical marijuana initiative insisted he was in strict compliance with the AMMA caregiver guidelines. Pima County prosecutors insisted Catlin was a “kingpin” who deserved life in prison. As with the Chris Martin case in Yavapai County, cannabis activists from across the state kept track of trial developments and even traveled to provide court support.
October: SWCCExpo Dominates Downtown PHX—For three days downtown PHX went cannabis crazy as the Southwest Cannabis Conference took over downtown PHX, much to the chagrin of Maricopa County’s perpetual foot-swallower Bill Montgomery. National coverage of Montgomery’s expo-related gaffes eventually rise to the level of being listed as one of the worst GOP statements on cannabis EVER. Over 40 national news stories told of the 4000 attendees, the 130 exhibitors and the 75 guest speakers who flocked to the PHX Convention Center, pumping millions of tourist dollars into the PHX economy and introducing AZ to the reality of the 21st century green rush. Cannabis celebrities from Keith Stroup to Kyle Kushman were on display. Veterans marched through the city streets led by a triple amputee, Jose Martinez from Weed for Warriors, dramatizing the need for cannabis reform, and multiple trendy downtown restaurants turned a deaf nostril to the wafts of weed emanating from their smoking patios. Though the event was far from conflict-free, despite threats from Montgomery to prosecute attendees wholesale, only two arrests were made for cannabis during the 3-day event (a mother and daughter for simple possession across the street from the PHX Convention Center). Organizers vow next year’s event, timed to coincide w the 2016 elections, will be twice as big.
Also—Embattled Maricopa County Sheriff Joe Arpaio confused most everyone including himself with an appearance at a Sun City cannabis discussion hosted by Momforce, a senior-focused cannabis education organization, founded by former Arizona NORML director Kathy Inman. Impressed with the tenacity of AZ’s cannabis activist community, grudgingly acknowledging the efficacy of medical marijuana and decidedly opposing full-legalization, Arpaio tried to cover all bases, but left many activists disappointed and some calling foul over connecting Arpaio to a movement that traditionally detests the man and his style of politics.
November: Supreme Court Rules on MMJ DUI Cases—In a ruling that has been interpreted both ways, the AZ State Supreme Court ruled that, while an AZ MMJ cardholder is not totally immune from cannabis related DUI charges, it can protect him from an automatic “A2” conviction based solely on the presence of metabolites in one’s system. Non-cardholders can be still convicted on a per se amount of metabolites in their system without further evidence of impairment. A Sept. national study sponsored by by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, National Institute of Drug Abuse, and the Office of National Drug Control Policy challenged the accepted wisdom regarding “stoned-driving,” finding that cannabis users actually had a lower risk of accident than other groups even non-smokers. Stern’s month’s end article, “Marijuana Harmful? Think Again!” would hammer home the explicit details of multiple studies claiming the right’s rants on reefer are mere madness.
Also—Longtime Tucson cannabis community leader, Iraq War vet and celebrity P to P defendant, Kyle Caitlin is found guilty and remanded into custody on the Monday before Thanksgiving, after a three-year long court battle and spending his entire final weekend of freedom volunteering at 3 different events with the local Tucson chapter of NORML. In a move that directly challenges MATFORCE and Sheila Polk’s dominance over Yavapai County, the city council of Cottonwood voted 6-1 to lift size restrictions on the local cannabis cultivation facility. Led by pro-business councilman, Jesse Dowling, the council endured a marathon session as MATFORCE representatives labored mightily to scare the council into rejecting the request to allow the local cultivation facility, Cottonwood Agricultural Services, to expand their facility so they can compete on the statewide mmj whoesale market. Elsewhere in the county, Polk’s powers were also being challenged in Chino Valley when efforts to further restrict cannabis operation in the city limits met with organized resistance that has so far delayed any final action on the proposed restrictive ordinance.
December: CRMLA Collects Over 125,000 signatures in 6 months—With the combination of an army of paid-petition gatherers and sporadic efforts by volunteers willing to brace against AZFMR social pressures, CRMLA blew past the 100,000 signagture mark and officially claimed over 125,000 by mid-December. According to newly installed CRMLA campaign manager, Adam Kinsey (from recent Carmona and Goddard campaigns with Carlos Alfaro now serving as campaign field director) CRMLA is the fastest collecting petition in the history of AZ ballot measures, actually well over 135,000 signatures and expecting to file 230,000 signatures by mid-spring. AZFMR claims over 60,000 signatures and vow to fight on.
Also— Now considered a 4th Avenue fixture and tourist attraction by the neighborhood merchants, Tucson’s 420 Social Club, the only surviving vaopr lounge in the state, celebrated its one-year anniversary as part of the annual 4th Avenue Winter Festival. Ever the fount of misinformation, MATFORCE’s Sheila Polk and Seth Leibsohn attempt to bill their January 7th Sedona anti-legalization rally as a debate. The backlash is immediate. As an ironic reward, or punishment, MATFORCE leaders select Cottonwood councilman Jesse Dowling to represent pro-legalization in a now-legitimate debate with Polk.
Ever the cannabis freedom-fighter, LD19 Rep. Mark Cardenas’ early filing of a revamped version of his 2015 legalization legislation, then called HB207, now redubbed HB2007, becomes the leading bill to watch in the late-December early-filing season at the AZ state capitol. In the wake of Cottonwood’s revolt against prohibitionists limiting commerce, Pinal County also reversed its earlier reefer madness and approved Casa Grande’s Sidewinder Dairy expanding into the cannabis cultivation business. In addition to home-grown cannabis training facilities such as HerbalRisings-Staff MMJ, PHX-based Dunlap-Stone University began offereing a college-accedited training in the marijuana industry, with possible Bachelors’ degrees in both horticulture and business.
And lastly, in a development that probably cheered both MATFORCE prohibitionists and AZFMR’s MPP haters, while national support for legalization soared to a strong 58%, after six months of very public, often ugly, civil war within AZ’s cannabis community, statewide polling for cannabis legalization drops from 53% to the 50-50 mark, jeopardizing 2016 legalization chances.
There it is, a year of activity, some of it merely sound and fury signifying nothing. Some of it will shape our lives for years to come. As of yet, it is too early to say whether or not AZ will win legalization in 2016, but one thing is for certain. Now that we have seen it takes almost 4500 words to describe a single dot on a timeline; I and my readers will never look at a period the same way again.
–Mikel Weisser is the state director of Arizona NORML and writes from the left coast of AZ.